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Long-Term Safety and Efficacy of Closed-Loop Spinal Cord Stimulation to Treat Chronic Back and Leg Pain (Evoke): A Double-Blind, Randomised, Controlled Trial.

Summary: Background: Spinal cord stimulation has been an established treatment for chronic back and leg pain for more than 50 years; however, outcomes are variable and unpredictable, and objective evidence of the mechanism of action is needed. A novel spinal cord stimulation system provides the first in vivo, real-time, continuous objective measure of spinal cord activation in response to therapy via recorded evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) in patients during daily use. 

Identification of Spinal Afferent Nerve Endings in the Colonic Mucosa and Submucosa That Communicate Directly With the Spinal Cord: The Gut-Brain Axis.

 Abstract: The major sensory nerve pathway between the colon and central nervous system (spinal cord and brain) that underlies the gut-brain axis, is via spinal afferent neurons, with cell bodies in dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Our aim was to identify the sensory nerve endings in the colon that arise from single colorectal-projecting DRG neurons. C57BL/6 mice were anesthetized and lumbosacral L6-S1 DRG injected with dextran biotin. Mice recovered for 7 days. 

Outcomes of Sympathetic Blocks in the Management of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Retrospective Cohort Study

Background: Sympathetic dysfunction may be present in complex regional pain syndrome, and sympathetic blocks are routinely performed in practice. To investigate the therapeutic and predictive values of sympathetic blocks, the authors test the hypotheses that sympathetic blocks provide analgesic effects that may be associated with the temperature differences between the two extremities before and after the blocks and that the effects of sympathetic blocks may predict the success (defined as achieving more than 50% pain reduction) of spinal cord stimulation trials.  

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Pain Medicine Journal
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AAPM

American Academy of Pain Medicine