The investigators have previously found moderately painful massage produces comparable changes in pain sensitivity as a conditioned pain modulation paradigm in healthy participants suggesting shared underlying mechanisms. The researchers aim to extend these findings by understanding the influence of expectation on these findings.
The primary objective of this study is to prospectively determine, at 10 days after orthopedic shoulder or knee surgery, if pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy is beneficial in reducing patient-reported post-operative pain, as measured by visual analog scale (VAS). The amount of pain medication taken daily and the physical function outcome scores after surgery and PEMF treatment will also be measured. e
The investigators propose to test the hypothesis that perioperative infusions of lidocaine and/or ketamine reduce opioid consumption and pain scores in adults recovering from elective inpatient abdominal surgery.
Brief Summary: The goal of this study is to determine if mind body therapies can help people suffering from chronic back pain. The study is a randomized, partially blinded trial examining the effectiveness of mind body interventions (treatment arms) in reducing disability from back pain and alleviating back pain in participants as compared to usual care (control arm ). The investigators will secondarily investigate whether mind body interventions improve participant quality of life and reduce the need for pain-related hospitalization.