Using opioids for acute pain can lead to long-term use and associated morbidity and mortality. Injury has been documented as a gateway to long-term opioid use in some populations, but data are limited for injured workers.
To determine the risk of prolonged opioid use in patients receiving tramadol compared with other short acting opioids. Opioid-naive patients undergoing elective surgery. Risk of persistent opioid use after discharge for patients treated with tramadol alone compared with other short acting opioids, using three commonly used definitions of prolonged opioid use from the literature: additional opioid use (defined as at least one opioid fill 90-180 days after surgery); persistent opioid use (any span of opioid use starting in the 180 days after surgery and lasting ≥90 days); and CONSORT definition (an opioid use episode starting in the 180 days after surgery that spans ≥90 days and includes either ≥10 opioid fills or ≥120 days' supply of opioids).
Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) devices produce a gentle electrical stimulation that when applied through pads applied directly to the skin, has a noticeable effect in reducing pain associated with various types of injuries and ailments.